KATE DALLEY: King Fraud A Lot (BIDEN) Mandate; Bioweapon & RemDEATHsiver Killing – Exposed
FDA DOCUMENT FROM 2020 LISTS NUMEROUS "ADVERSE EVENT OUTCOMES" (SUBJECT TO CHANGE) WHEN TAKING COVID VACCINES AND/OR REMDESIVIR
Monitoring and Adverse Effects
Remdesivir can cause gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea), elevated transaminase levels, an increase in prothrombin time (without a change in the international normalized ratio), and hypersensitivity reactions.
Liver function tests and prothrombin time should be obtained in all patients before remdesivir is administered and during treatment as clinically indicated. Remdesivir may need to be discontinued if alanine transaminase (ALT) levels increase to >10 times the upper limit of normal and should be discontinued if an increase in ALT level and signs or symptoms of liver inflammation are observed.3
Considerations in Patients With Renal Insufficiency
Each 100 mg vial of remdesivir lyophilized powder contains 3 g of sulfobutylether beta-cyclodextrin sodium (SBECD), whereas each 100 mg/20 mL vial of remdesivir solution contains 6 g of SBECD.3 SBECD is a vehicle that is primarily eliminated through the kidneys. A patient with COVID-19 who receives a loading dose of remdesivir 200 mg would receive 6 g to 12 g of SBECD, depending on the formulation. This amount of SBECD is within the safety threshold for patients with normal renal function.4 Accumulation of SBECD in patients with renal impairment may result in liver and renal toxicities. Clinicians may consider preferentially using the lyophilized powder formulation (which contains less SBECD) in patients with renal impairment.
Because both remdesivir formulations contain SBECD, patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <50 mL/min were excluded from some clinical trials of remdesivir; other trials had an eGFR cutoff of <30 mL/min. Remdesivir is not recommended for patients with an eGFR <30 mL/min due to lack of data.5 Renal function should be monitored before and during remdesivir treatment as clinically indicated.3
In two observational studies that evaluated the use of remdesivir in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, no significant differences were reported in the incidences of adverse effects or acute kidney injury between patients with an estimated creatinine clearance (CrCl) <30 mL/min and those with an estimated CrCl ≥30 mL/min.6,7 One of these studies evaluated patients who primarily received the solution formulation of remdesivir (20 patients had an estimated CrCl <30 mL/min and 115 had an estimated CrCl ≥30 mL/min);6 the other study evaluated patients who received the lyophilized powder formulation (40 patients had an estimated CrCl <30 mL/min and 307 had an estimated CrCl ≥30 mL/min).7